Cyber Security Glossary: Cyber Security Terms Listed From A To Z

Cyber security is a wide field that consists of many terms and definitions. By learning these terms, you can recognize the importance of information security. These terms will help you to understand cyber security and information security better.

In addition, by knowing these terms you can find out how the security strategies work behind. Are you ready to tackle anything and everything that has to do with cyber security? If yes, start to read this post and get familiar with these tech words.

Advanced Persistent Threats

These kinds of stealthy threat actors could be really harmful. These can gain unauthorized access to a computer network and remains undetected for an extended period. When an unauthorized user invades a network, the user might stay for an extended period of time and might steal the data without harming the network.


CAPTCHA is short for a Completely Automated Public Turing test. It’s a challenging test to differentiate between humans and computers. Recognizing stretched letters or numbers, and choosing a picture are some of the examples of CAPTCHA.

Computer Virus

A computer virus is a malicious code that spreads from host to host and replicates itself. Once it attaches itself to a legitimate file in a computer, it causes unexpected damages to software and data.


Cookies are the pieces of information, such as a username and password, to recognize your computer. While there are different types of cookies, which are magic, and HTTP cookies, their target is personalization, and tracking.

Data Breach

Data breach describes unauthorized access to information. Because of the network vulnerabilities, a big amount of data can be nabbed through data breaches.

Data Protection

Data protection is the process or strategy to secure pieces of information. In this way, loss, corruption, or compromise can be prevented. Also, this term covers the recovery period through information backup.

Digital Security

Digital security is a set of terms that defines the resources to protect your assets, like online identity, and data. Digital security can be built and maintained through numerous tools like software, web services, and biometrics.

Email Virus

An email virus is malicious code and it is spread through email. It is delivered through an email message, downloads an email attachment. While there are various types of email viruses, they aim to access unauthorized information.


A firewall is a kind of network security device that monitors the network traffic and manages the incoming or outgoing traffic, if necessary. There are various kinds of firewalls, and all of them aim to protect the network.


Hardware is what makes the computer running. There are external and internal hardware tools. Some of the external tools are a keyboard, speaker, microphone, and such. And some of the internal tools are CPU (central processing unit), RAM or a hard drive, sound card, video card, and so on.

Information Security

Information security is a term that defines the prevention of unauthorized access and uses, avoiding the destruction of information, and securing the system as a whole. It assures confidentiality, integrity, and availability.


Malware is an umbrella term that is short for malicious software. It is the malicious activities that harm computers, computer systems, networks, and devices. While there are numerous kinds of malware, the most common ones are adware, spyware, worm, ransomware, and malicious crypto-mining.


Software is a set of instructions that orders the computer to run in a certain way. All programs, procedures, and routines are determined in software. There are two types of it, which are system and application software.


Spyware is malicious software that collects the data in your computer and sends it to third-parties. It gathers information like passwords and usernames, credit card numbers, account PINs, harvested email addresses, and so on.


Vulnerability is a weakness in the network that can result in a cyber attack and data breaches. Because of the vulnerability, malicious activity can be installed and unauthorized access can occur. There are different types of vulnerabilities, which are SQL injection, missing authentication, missing authorization, missing data encryption, and unrestricted upload of files.


A zero-day is a computer-software vulnerability either unknown to those who should be interested in its mitigation or known and a patch has not been developed. Until the vulnerability is mitigated, hackers can exploit it to adversely affect programs, data, additional computers or a network.

Zero-Day Exploit

A previously unknown, bug, flaw, or backdoor in software. An attack happens once this flaw is exploited and attackers release malware before the flaw can be patched.


Cyber security is a field that includes many branches. Thus, it consists of various terms and set of terms. By recognizing them, and understanding their meanings clearly, building a solid cyber security strategy is possible. For a solid strategy, you should be aware of both information security basics and malicious activity types. In this way, you can be more prepared for the threats. Recognition and awareness are some of the keys to a better information security system.

By training the employees about these terms, you can build a cyber security culture in the office. Building this culture requires time and energy. However, once it is built, it is highly effective to prevent data breaches. That’s why every company needs to make a strategy for that and apply it. In this way, the network’s vulnerability can be decreased even though cyber crimes become more and more dangerous every day.

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●What are the differences between software and hardware?
While hardware is a set of physical devices to run the computer, the software is a programming code. Computers need hardware to run. However, they can run without software. The main difference between them is that hardware is physical, but the software is virtual.

●What are the types of email viruses?
Some of the types of email viruses are direct action viruses, resident viruses, keyloggers, polymorphic viruses, boot sector viruses, and multipartite viruses. To avoid these viruses, you should always be careful when clicking a link or downloading an attachment that was sent through an email.

● What are the differences between digital security and cyber security?
The most basic difference between digital and cyber security is their protection coverage. Digital security protects the online presence. However, cyber security protects all kinds of areas, like networks, computer systems, and other devices. So, it offers both generalized and specified protection.

● What are the reasons for data breaches?
There are some common reasons for data breaches that need to be avoided by everyone. Some of them are drive-by downloads, system vulnerabilities, weak security measures, and targeted malicious activities. By building a solid cyber security strategy, data breaches can be prevented.

References: Imperva, Kaspersky, Norton, Search Data Backup, SimpliLearn, Cisco, G2, Computer Hope, Britannia, Geeksforgeeks, MalvareBytes, Up Guard and Guardian.

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