What is Digital Forensics? What are the Types of Digital Forensics?


In today’s technology-driven world, where digital interactions have become the norm, the need for robust cybersecurity measures has never been greater. Cybercriminals continually adapt their strategies to exploit the latest technologies. In response to these threats and the imperative to investigate online crimes, the field of digital forensics has emerged. In this article, we will look into what digital forensics encompasses, explore its various subfields, and underscore its pivotal role in contemporary cybersecurity.

What is Digital Forensics?

Digital forensics, also known as computer forensics, is a forensic science subset that identifies, preserves, and analyzes digital evidence for legal proceedings. It applies investigative methods to extract evidence from devices like computers, mobile phones, and networks. Its primary goal is to uncover cybercrimes and aid in the prosecution of individuals involved in such activities.

What is Meant by Digital Forensics?

Digital forensics is the process of recovering and analyzing digital evidence for cybercrimes and security breaches. It involves scientific methods and specialized equipment to extract information from digital devices while preserving evidence authenticity for legal proceedings.

Types of Digital Forensics

Disk Forensics:  This digital forensics type acquires, analyzes, and interprets data from computer storage media. It recovers deleted files, examines metadata, and identifies evidence of user activities like browsing history, emails, and file access.

Network Forensics: Network forensics focuses on investigating network traffic to detect and analyze security incidents or unauthorized activities. It involves the collection and analysis of network packets, log files, and other network-related data to reconstruct events, identify intrusions, and determine the extent of a cyber attack.

Mobile Device Forensics: Mobile device forensics analyzes data from smartphones, tablets, and wearables, including call logs, texts, emails, GPS data, and social media activity. Specialized tools and methods are used in this process.

The field of digital forensics can be broken down into three primary subfields, each of which has its unique area of concentration and set of goals to accomplish:

Disc forensics, or the study of storage media like hard drives and SSDs, involves examining and analyzing these devices. Specialists use advanced tools to recover digital artifacts, find deleted files, uncover hidden partitions, and analyze file systems for cybercrime evidence.

Forensics in the Network: Network forensics monitors and analyzes network traffic for security breaches and unauthorized access. It involves capturing packets, analyzing logs, and reconstructing network events to trace attack origins and gather evidence.

Memory Forensics: Memory forensics extracts and analyzes volatile data from a computer’s RAM, revealing ongoing processes, network connections, encryption keys, and other volatile information. It’s a computer forensics field developed in the 1990s and essential for investigating live system breaches, malware, and advanced cybercrimes.

What are the Types of Forensic Analysis?

Four primary forms of forensic analysis may be performed on digital data, all of which fall under the umbrella of the discipline of digital forensics.

Imaging and Analysis of Discs

This technique entails creating a bit-by-bit copy (image) of a digital storage device to preserve its data. Investigators then analyze this image using specialized software to uncover hidden partitions, deleted data, timestamps, and other relevant information.

File Carving

File carving is the process of extracting files and pieces of files from unallocated disc space or raw data. Sometimes referred to as “carving a file,” this method is especially helpful for recovering files that have been deleted or destroyed, and it also has the potential to yield important evidence in an inquiry.

Analysing Metadata

Metadata is the data that describes other data, such as timestamps, file sizes, and user information. It is also known as “descriptive data.” When investigating a computer crime, analyzing metadata helps understand activities on digital evidence, track file access and modification times, and establish timelines.

Analysing Files

Analyzing files entails inspecting individual files to discover important information. This may include metadata, file attributes, file signatures, and embedded data. This examination can help identify the integrity of the file, who owns it, and whether or not it has been tampered with.

Memory Analysis

Memory analysis focuses on the investigation of a digital device’s random access memory (RAM) as its primary area of investigation. It aims to find operating processes, network connections, encryption keys, and other artifacts for insights into current operations or evidence of malicious actions. Specifically, it strives to find running processes on a computer.

Analysing Malicious Software

It is to understand Its Behaviour, Purpose, and possible Impact Malware analysis is the process of analyzing malicious software to understand its behaviour, purpose, and possible impact. This study assists in identifying the nature of an attack, locating the source of the attack, and developing effective countermeasures.

Analysis of Network Traffic

Network packets, log files, and other types of network data are analyzed in network traffic analysis. The goal of this type of analysis is to recreate events, discover trends, and locate abnormalities. It makes it possible to identify assaults that are based on a network, as well as compromised systems and efforts to get unauthorized access.

Keyword Searching

Using specific terms or phrases to search for relevant digital evidence is known as keyword searching. This method is valuable for pinpointing specific files, emails, chat logs, or other evidence relevant to online crimes.


Digital forensics, a crucial branch of computer science, plays a pivotal role in detecting and preventing computer crimes. In our increasingly interconnected world with ever-evolving cyber threats, the role of digital forensics has become paramount. Experts in this field possess the knowledge and skills necessary to uncover crucial information that can aid in identifying and successfully prosecuting cybercriminals.

The capacity to apply cutting-edge procedures and use specialized tools and instruments is essential to the success of digital forensics. Investigators use diverse methods to gather, analyze, and decipher digital evidence from computers, mobile devices, and network systems. Digital forensics experts can meticulously construct a comprehensive timeline of cybercrimes by examining digital artifacts, file systems, and network logs. This allows them to reconstruct the sequence of events, track the genesis of an attack, and determine where it originated.

The value of services provided by digital forensics extends far beyond the process of investigating computer crimes. Additionally, it plays a significant part in preventing future catastrophes and the upkeep of cybersecurity. Digital forensics experts identify system, network, or software vulnerabilities through cyberattack pattern analysis. Cybercriminals exploit these weaknesses. Organizations can bolster security, fix vulnerabilities, and defend against threats with this vital information.

Digital forensics is indispensable, not only for investigations but also for bolstering the overall security of individuals and organizations. It plays a vital role in data integrity, protecting sensitive information, and legal compliance through meticulous digital evidence collection and analysis. Digital forensics experts help establish a culture of accountability, holding cybercriminals responsible for their actions and deterring future illegal activities.

Source: Designed by Freepik